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Addendum - Florida Psychologist Ethics
Florida Laws and Rules Relevant to the Practice of Psychology
LICENSE RENEWAL, CONTINUING EDUCATION
64B19-13.003 Continuing Psychological Education Credit
(3) As a condition of biennial licensure renewal, each licensee must complete forty (40) hours of continuing psychological education.
(a) Three (3) of the forty (40) hours must be on professional ethics and Florida Statutes and rules affecting the practice of psychology. Of those three hours, at least one hour shall be on professional ethics, and at least one hour shall be on Florida laws and rules relevant to the practice of psychology and shall include Chapters 456 and 490, F.S. and Rule Chapter 64B19, F.A.C.
Chapter 456 F.S.
456.031Requirement for instruction on domestic violence.—
(1)(a)The appropriate board shall require each person licensed or certified under chapter 458, chapter 459, part I of chapter 464, chapter 466, chapter 467, chapter 490, or chapter 491 to complete a 2-hour continuing education course, approved by the board, on domestic violence, as defined in s. 741.28, as part of every third biennial relicensure or recertification. The course shall consist of information on the number of patients in that professional’s practice who are likely to be victims of domestic violence and the number who are likely to be perpetrators of domestic violence, screening procedures for determining whether a patient has any history of being either a victim or a perpetrator of domestic violence, and instruction on how to provide such patients with information on, or how to refer such patients to, resources in the local community, such as domestic violence centers and other advocacy groups, that provide legal aid, shelter, victim counseling, batterer counseling, or child protection services.
(b)Each such licensee or certificateholder shall submit confirmation of having completed such course, on a form provided by the board, when submitting fees for every third biennial renewal.
(c)The board may approve additional equivalent courses that may be used to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (a). Each licensing board that requires a licensee to complete an educational course pursuant to this subsection may include the hour required for completion of the course in the total hours of continuing education required by law for such profession unless the continuing education requirements for such profession consist of fewer than 30 hours biennially.
(d)Any person holding two or more licenses subject to the provisions of this subsection shall be permitted to show proof of having taken one board-approved course on domestic violence, for purposes of relicensure or recertification for additional licenses.
(e)Failure to comply with the requirements of this subsection shall constitute grounds for disciplinary action under each respective practice act and under s. 456.072(1)(k). In addition to discipline by the board, the licensee shall be required to complete such course.
(2)Each board may adopt rules to carry out the provisions of this section.
History.—s. 4, ch. 95-187; s. 61, ch. 97-261; s. 58, ch. 2000-160; s. 6, ch. 2000-295; s. 112, ch. 2000-318; s. 1, ch. 2001-176; s. 1, ch. 2001-250; s. 105, ch. 2001-277; s. 1, ch. 2006-251.
Note.—Former s. 455.222; s. 455.597.
456.032Hepatitis B or HIV carriers.—
(1)The department and each appropriate board within the Division of Medical Quality Assurance shall have the authority to establish procedures to handle, counsel, and provide other services to health care professionals within their respective boards who are infected with hepatitis B or the human immunodeficiency virus.
(2)Any person licensed by the department and any other person employed by a health care facility who contracts a blood-borne infection shall have a rebuttable presumption that the illness was contracted in the course and scope of his or her employment, provided that the person, as soon as practicable, reports to the person’s supervisor or the facility’s risk manager any significant exposure, as that term is defined in s. 381.004(2)(c), to blood or body fluids. The employer may test the blood or body fluid to determine if it is infected with the same disease contracted by the employee. The employer may rebut the presumption by the preponderance of the evidence. Except as expressly provided in this subsection, there shall be no presumption that a blood-borne infection is a job-related injury or illness.
History.—s. 75, ch. 91-297; s. 76, ch. 94-218; s. 62, ch. 97-261; s. 81, ch. 99-397; s. 59, ch. 2000-160.
Note.—Former s. 455.2224; s. 455.601.
456.033Requirement for instruction for certain licensees on HIV and AIDS.—The following requirements apply to each person licensed or certified under chapter 457; chapter 458; chapter 459; chapter 460; chapter 461; chapter 463; part I of chapter 464; chapter 465; chapter 466; part II, part III, part V, or part X of chapter 468; or chapter 486:
(1)Each person shall be required by the appropriate board to complete no later than upon first renewal a continuing educational course, approved by the board, on human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome as part of biennial relicensure or recertification. The course shall consist of education on the modes of transmission, infection control procedures, clinical management, and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Such course shall include information on current Florida law on acquired immune deficiency syndrome and its impact on testing, confidentiality of test results, treatment of patients, and any protocols and procedures applicable to human immunodeficiency virus counseling and testing, reporting, the offering of HIV testing to pregnant women, and partner notification issues pursuant to ss. 381.004 and 384.25.
(2)Each person shall submit confirmation of having completed the course required under subsection (1), on a form as provided by the board, when submitting fees for first renewal.
(3)The board shall have the authority to approve additional equivalent courses that may be used to satisfy the requirements in subsection (1). Each licensing board that requires a licensee to complete an educational course pursuant to this section may count the hours required for completion of the course included in the total continuing educational requirements as required by law.
(4)Any person holding two or more licenses subject to the provisions of this section shall be permitted to show proof of having taken one board-approved course on human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome, for purposes of relicensure or recertification for additional licenses.
(5)Failure to comply with the above requirements shall constitute grounds for disciplinary action under each respective licensing chapter and s. 456.072(1)(e). In addition to discipline by the board, the licensee shall be required to complete the course.
History.—s. 63, ch. 97-261; s. 4, ch. 98-171; s. 9, ch. 99-331; s. 82, ch. 99-397; s. 60, ch. 2000-160; s. 113, ch. 2000-318; s. 2, ch. 2001-176; s. 2, ch. 2001-250; s. 106, ch. 2001-277; s. 2, ch. 2006-251.
Note.—Former s. 455.604.
456.0575Duty to notify patients.—Every licensed health care practitioner shall inform each patient, or an individual identified pursuant to s. 765.401(1), in person about adverse incidents that result in serious harm to the patient. Notification of outcomes of care that result in harm to the patient under this section shall not constitute an acknowledgment of admission of liability, nor can such notifications be introduced as evidence.
History.—s. 8, ch. 2003-416.
456.058Disposition of records of deceased practitioners or practitioners relocating or terminating practice.—Each board created under the provisions of chapter 457, chapter 458, chapter 459, chapter 460, chapter 461, chapter 463, part I of chapter 464, chapter 465, chapter 466, part I of chapter 484, chapter 486, chapter 490, or chapter 491, and the department under the provisions of chapter 462, shall provide by rule for the disposition, under that chapter, of the medical records or records of a psychological nature of practitioners which are in existence at the time the practitioner dies, terminates practice, or relocates and is no longer available to patients and which records pertain to the practitioner’s patients. The rules shall provide that the records be retained for at least 2 years after the practitioner’s death, termination of practice, or relocation. In the case of the death of the practitioner, the rules shall provide for the disposition of such records by the estate of the practitioner.
History.—s. 85, ch. 97-261; s. 80, ch. 2000-160; s. 115, ch. 2000-318.
Note.—Former s. 455.677.
456.059Communications confidential; exceptions.—Communications between a patient and a psychiatrist, as defined in s. 394.455, shall be held confidential and shall not be disclosed except upon the request of the patient or the patient’s legal representative. Provision of psychiatric records and reports shall be governed by s. 456.057. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section or s. 90.503, where:
(1)A patient is engaged in a treatment relationship with a psychiatrist;
(2)Such patient has made an actual threat to physically harm an identifiable victim or victims; and
(3)The treating psychiatrist makes a clinical judgment that the patient has the apparent capability to commit such an act and that it is more likely than not that in the near future the patient will carry out that threat,
the psychiatrist may disclose patient communications to the extent necessary to warn any potential victim or to communicate the threat to a law enforcement agency. No civil or criminal action shall be instituted, and there shall be no liability on account of disclosure of otherwise confidential communications by a psychiatrist in disclosing a threat pursuant to this section.
History.—s. 10, ch. 88-1; s. 33, ch. 92-149; s. 43, ch. 96-169; s. 83, ch. 97-261; s. 81, ch. 2000-160.
Note.—Former s. 455.2415; s. 455.671.
456.061Practitioner disclosure of confidential information; immunity from civil or criminal liability.—
(1)A practitioner regulated through the Division of Medical Quality Assurance of the department shall not be civilly or criminally liable for the disclosure of otherwise confidential information to a sexual partner or a needle-sharing partner under the following circumstances:
(a)If a patient of the practitioner who has tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus discloses to the practitioner the identity of a sexual partner or a needle-sharing partner;
(b)The practitioner recommends the patient notify the sexual partner or the needle-sharing partner of the positive test and refrain from engaging in sexual or drug activity in a manner likely to transmit the virus and the patient refuses, and the practitioner informs the patient of his or her intent to inform the sexual partner or needle-sharing partner; and
(c)If pursuant to a perceived civil duty or the ethical guidelines of the profession, the practitioner reasonably and in good faith advises the sexual partner or the needle-sharing partner of the patient of the positive test and facts concerning the transmission of the virus.
However, any notification of a sexual partner or a needle-sharing partner pursuant to this section shall be done in accordance with protocols developed pursuant to rule of the Department of Health.
(2)Notwithstanding the foregoing, a practitioner regulated through the Division of Medical Quality Assurance of the department shall not be civilly or criminally liable for failure to disclose information relating to a positive test result for human immunodeficiency virus of a patient to a sexual partner or a needle-sharing partner.
History.—s. 43, ch. 88-380; s. 12, ch. 89-350; s. 191, ch. 97-103; s. 84, ch. 97-261; s. 220, ch. 99-8; s. 82, ch. 2000-160.
Note.—Former s. 455.2416; s. 455.674.
456.067Penalty for giving false information.—In addition to, or in lieu of, any other discipline imposed pursuant to s. 456.072, the act of knowingly giving false information in the course of applying for or obtaining a license from the department, or any board thereunder, with intent to mislead a public servant in the performance of his or her official duties, or the act of attempting to obtain or obtaining a license from the department, or any board thereunder, to practice a profession by knowingly misleading statements or knowing misrepresentations constitutes a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.
History.—s. 71, ch. 97-261; s. 24, ch. 99-7; s. 86, ch. 2000-160; s. 27, ch. 2000-318.
456.076Treatment programs for impaired practitioners.—
(1)For professions that do not have impaired practitioner programs provided for in their practice acts, the department shall, by rule, designate approved impaired practitioner programs under this section. The department may adopt rules setting forth appropriate criteria for approval of treatment providers. The rules may specify the manner in which the consultant, retained as set forth in subsection (2), works with the department in intervention, requirements for evaluating and treating a professional, requirements for continued care of impaired professionals by approved treatment providers, continued monitoring by the consultant of the care provided by approved treatment providers regarding the professionals under their care, and requirements related to the consultant’s expulsion of professionals from the program.
(2)The department shall retain one or more impaired practitioner consultants. The consultant shall be a licensee under the jurisdiction of the Division of Medical Quality Assurance within the department who must be a practitioner or recovered practitioner licensed under chapter 458, chapter 459, or part I of chapter 464, or an entity employing a medical director who must be a practitioner or recovered practitioner licensed under chapter 458, chapter 459, or part I of chapter 464. The consultant shall assist the probable cause panel and department in carrying out the responsibilities of this section. This shall include working with department investigators to determine whether a practitioner is, in fact, impaired. The consultant may contract for services to be provided, for appropriate compensation, if requested by the school, for students enrolled in schools for licensure as allopathic physicians or physician assistants under chapter 458, osteopathic physicians or physician assistants under chapter 459, nurses under chapter 464, or pharmacists under chapter 465 who are alleged to be impaired as a result of the misuse or abuse of alcohol or drugs, or both, or due to a mental or physical condition. The department is not responsible under any circumstances for paying the costs of care provided by approved treatment providers, and the department is not responsible for paying the costs of consultants’ services provided for students. A medical school accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education of the Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation, or other school providing for the education of students enrolled in preparation for licensure as allopathic physicians under chapter 458 or osteopathic physicians under chapter 459, which is governed by accreditation standards requiring notice and the provision of due process procedures to students, is not liable in any civil action for referring a student to the consultant retained by the department or for disciplinary actions that adversely affect the status of a student when the disciplinary actions are instituted in reasonable reliance on the recommendations, reports, or conclusions provided by such consultant, if the school, in referring the student or taking disciplinary action, adheres to the due process procedures adopted by the applicable accreditation entities and if the school committed no intentional fraud in carrying out the provisions of this section.
(3)(a)Whenever the department receives a written or oral legally sufficient complaint alleging that a licensee under the jurisdiction of the Division of Medical Quality Assurance within the department is impaired as a result of the misuse or abuse of alcohol or drugs, or both, or due to a mental or physical condition which could affect the licensee’s ability to practice with skill and safety, and no complaint against the licensee other than impairment exists, the reporting of such information shall not constitute grounds for discipline pursuant to s. 456.072 or the corresponding grounds for discipline within the applicable practice act if the probable cause panel of the appropriate board, or the department when there is no board, finds:
1.The licensee has acknowledged the impairment problem.
2.The licensee has voluntarily enrolled in an appropriate, approved treatment program.
3.The licensee has voluntarily withdrawn from practice or limited the scope of practice as required by the consultant, in each case, until such time as the panel, or the department when there is no board, is satisfied the licensee has successfully completed an approved treatment program.
4.The licensee has executed releases for medical records, authorizing the release of all records of evaluations, diagnoses, and treatment of the licensee, including records of treatment for emotional or mental conditions, to the consultant. The consultant shall make no copies or reports of records that do not regard the issue of the licensee’s impairment and his or her participation in a treatment program.
(b)If, however, the department has not received a legally sufficient complaint and the licensee agrees to withdraw from practice until such time as the consultant determines the licensee has satisfactorily completed an approved treatment program or evaluation, the probable cause panel, or the department when there is no board, shall not become involved in the licensee’s case.
(c)Inquiries related to impairment treatment programs designed to provide information to the licensee and others and which do not indicate that the licensee presents a danger to the public shall not constitute a complaint within the meaning of s. 456.073 and shall be exempt from the provisions of this subsection.
(d)Whenever the department receives a legally sufficient complaint alleging that a licensee is impaired as described in paragraph (a) and no complaint against the licensee other than impairment exists, the department shall forward all information in its possession regarding the impaired licensee to the consultant. For the purposes of this section, a suspension from hospital staff privileges due to the impairment does not constitute a complaint.
(e)The probable cause panel, or the department when there is no board, shall work directly with the consultant, and all information concerning a practitioner obtained from the consultant by the panel, or the department when there is no board, shall remain confidential and exempt from the provisions of s. 119.07(1), subject to the provisions of subsections (5) and (6).
(f)A finding of probable cause shall not be made as long as the panel, or the department when there is no board, is satisfied, based upon information it receives from the consultant and the department, that the licensee is progressing satisfactorily in an approved impaired practitioner program and no other complaint against the licensee exists.
(4)In any disciplinary action for a violation other than impairment in which a licensee establishes the violation for which the licensee is being prosecuted was due to or connected with impairment and further establishes the licensee is satisfactorily progressing through or has successfully completed an approved treatment program pursuant to this section, such information may be considered by the board, or the department when there is no board, as a mitigating factor in determining the appropriate penalty. This subsection does not limit mitigating factors the board may consider.
(5)(a)An approved treatment provider shall, upon request, disclose to the consultant all information in its possession regarding the issue of a licensee’s impairment and participation in the treatment program. All information obtained by the consultant and department pursuant to this section is confidential and exempt from the provisions of s. 119.07(1), subject to the provisions of this subsection and subsection (6). Failure to provide such information to the consultant is grounds for withdrawal of approval of such program or provider.
(b)If in the opinion of the consultant, after consultation with the treatment provider, an impaired licensee has not progressed satisfactorily in a treatment program, all information regarding the issue of a licensee’s impairment and participation in a treatment program in the consultant’s possession shall be disclosed to the department. Such disclosure shall constitute a complaint pursuant to the general provisions of s. 456.073. Whenever the consultant concludes that impairment affects a licensee’s practice and constitutes an immediate, serious danger to the public health, safety, or welfare, that conclusion shall be communicated to the State Surgeon General.
(6)A consultant, licensee, or approved treatment provider who makes a disclosure pursuant to this section is not subject to civil liability for such disclosure or its consequences. The provisions of s. 766.101 apply to any officer, employee, or agent of the department or the board and to any officer, employee, or agent of any entity with which the department has contracted pursuant to this section.
(7)(a)A consultant retained pursuant to subsection (2), a consultant’s officers and employees, and those acting at the direction of the consultant for the limited purpose of an emergency intervention on behalf of a licensee or student as described in subsection (2) when the consultant is unable to perform such intervention shall be considered agents of the department for purposes of s. 768.28 while acting within the scope of the consultant’s duties under the contract with the department if the contract complies with the requirements of this section. The contract must require that:
1.The consultant indemnify the state for any liabilities incurred up to the limits set out in chapter 768.
2.The consultant establish a quality assurance program to monitor services delivered under the contract.
3.The consultant’s quality assurance program, treatment, and monitoring records be evaluated quarterly.
4.The consultant’s quality assurance program be subject to review and approval by the department.
5.The consultant operate under policies and procedures approved by the department.
6.The consultant provide to the department for approval a policy and procedure manual that comports with all statutes, rules, and contract provisions approved by the department.
7.The department be entitled to review the records relating to the consultant’s performance under the contract for the purpose of management audits, financial audits, or program evaluation.
8.All performance measures and standards be subject to verification and approval by the department.
9.The department be entitled to terminate the contract with the consultant for noncompliance with the contract.
(b)In accordance with s. 284.385, the Department of Financial Services shall defend any claim, suit, action, or proceeding against the consultant, the consultant’s officers or employees, or those acting at the direction of the consultant for the limited purpose of an emergency intervention on behalf of a licensee or student as described in subsection (2) when the consultant is unable to perform such intervention which is brought as a result of any act or omission by any of the consultant’s officers and employees and those acting under the direction of the consultant for the limited purpose of an emergency intervention on behalf of a licensee or student as described in subsection (2) when the consultant is unable to perform such intervention when such act or omission arises out of and in the scope of the consultant’s duties under its contract with the department.
(c)If the consultant retained pursuant to subsection (2) is retained by any other state agency, and if the contract between such state agency and the consultant complies with the requirements of this section, the consultant, the consultant’s officers and employees, and those acting under the direction of the consultant for the limited purpose of an emergency intervention on behalf of a licensee or student as described in subsection (2) when the consultant is unable to perform such intervention shall be considered agents of the state for the purposes of this section while acting within the scope of and pursuant to guidelines established in the contract between such state agency and the consultant.
History.—s. 38, ch. 92-149; s. 1, ch. 95-139; s. 310, ch. 96-406; s. 1085, ch. 97-103; s. 3, ch. 97-209; s. 94, ch. 97-261; s. 2, ch. 98-130; s. 94, ch. 2000-160; ss. 29, 117, ch. 2000-318; s. 67, ch. 2008-6; s. 1, ch. 2008-63.
Note.—Former s. 455.261; s. 455.707.
456.082Disclosure of confidential information.—
(1)No officer, employee, or person under contract with the department, or any board therein, or any subject of an investigation shall convey knowledge or information to any person who is not lawfully entitled to such knowledge or information about any public meeting or public record, which at the time such knowledge or information is conveyed is exempt from the provisions of s. 119.01, s. 119.07(1), or s. 286.011.
(2)Any person who willfully violates any provision of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, and may be subject to discipline pursuant to s. 456.072, and, if applicable, shall be removed from office, employment, or the contractual relationship.
(3)Any person injured as a result of a willful violation of this section shall have a civil cause of action for treble damages, reasonable attorney fees, and costs.
History.—s. 77, ch. 97-261; s. 37, ch. 98-166; s. 7, ch. 99-356; s. 188, ch. 99-397; s. 99, ch. 2000-160; s. 27, ch. 2000-318.
Note.—Former s. 455.651.
As used in this chapter:
(1) "Board" means the Board of Psychology.
(2) "Department" means the Department of Health.
(3)(a) Prior to July 1, 1999, "doctoral-level psychological education" and "doctoral degree in psychology" mean a Psy.D., an Ed.D. in psychology, or a Ph.D. in psychology from:
1. An educational institution which, at the time the applicant was enrolled and graduated, had institutional accreditation from an agency recognized and approved by the United States Department of Education or was recognized as a member in good standing with the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada; and
2. A psychology program within that educational institution which, at the time the applicant was enrolled and graduated, had programmatic accreditation from an accrediting agency recognized and approved by the United States Department of Education or was comparable to such programs.
(b) Effective July 1, 1999, "doctoral-level psychological education" and "doctoral degree in psychology" mean a Psy.D., an Ed.D. in psychology, or a Ph.D. in psychology from:
1. An educational institution which, at the time the applicant was enrolled and graduated, had institutional accreditation from an agency recognized and approved by the United States Department of Education or was recognized as a member in good standing with the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada; and
2. A psychology program within that educational institution which, at the time the applicant was enrolled and graduated, had programmatic accreditation from an agency recognized and approved by the United States Department of Education.
(4) "Practice of psychology" means the observations, description, evaluation, interpretation, and modification of human behavior, by the use of scientific and applied psychological principles, methods, and procedures, for the purpose of describing, preventing, alleviating, or eliminating symptomatic, maladaptive, or undesired behavior and of enhancing interpersonal behavioral health and mental or psychological health. The ethical practice of psychology includes, but is not limited to, psychological testing and the evaluation or assessment of personal characteristics such as intelligence, personality, abilities, interests, aptitudes, and neuropsychological functioning, including evaluation of mental competency to manage one's affairs and to participate in legal proceedings; counseling, psychoanalysis, all forms of psychotherapy, sex therapy, hypnosis, biofeedback, and behavioral analysis and therapy; psychoeducational evaluation, therapy, remediation, and consultation; and use of psychological methods to diagnose and treat mental, nervous, psychological, marital, or emotional disorders, illness, or disability, alcoholism and substance abuse, and disorders of habit or conduct, as well as the psychological aspects of physical illness, accident, injury, or disability, including neuropsychological evaluation, diagnosis, prognosis, etiology, and treatment.
(a) Psychological services may be rendered to individuals, couples, families, groups, and the public without regard to place of service.
(b) The use of specific modalities within the practice of psychology is restricted to psychologists appropriately trained in the use of such modalities.
(c) The practice of psychology shall be construed within the meaning of this definition without regard to whether payment is requested or received for services rendered.
(5) "Practice of school psychology" means the rendering or offering to render to an individual, a group, an organization, a government agency, or the public any of the following services:
(a) Assessment, which includes psychoeducational, developmental, and vocational assessment; evaluation and interpretation of intelligence, aptitudes, interests, academic achievement, adjustment, and motivations, or any other attributes, in individuals or groups, that relate to learning, educational, or adjustment needs.
(b) Counseling, which includes short-term situation-oriented professional interaction with children, parents, or other adults for amelioration or prevention of learning and adjustment problems. Counseling services relative to the practice of school psychology include verbal interaction, interviewing, behavior techniques, developmental and vocational intervention, environmental management, and group processes.
(c) Consultation, which includes psychoeducational, developmental, and vocational assistance or direct educational services to schools, agencies, organizations, families, or individuals related to learning problems and adjustments to those problems.
(d) Development of programs, which includes designing, implementing, or evaluating educationally and psychologically sound learning environments; acting as a catalyst for teacher involvement in adaptations and innovations; and facilitating the psychoeducational development of individual families or groups.
(6) "Provisional psychologist licensee" means a person provisionally licensed under this chapter to provide psychological services under supervision.
(7) "Psychologist" means a person licensed pursuant to s. 490.005(1), s. 490.006, or the provision identified as s. 490.013(2) in s. 1, chapter 81-235, Laws of Florida.
(8) "School psychologist" means a person licensed pursuant to s. 490.005(2), s. 490.006, or the provision identified as s. 490.013(1) in s. 1, chapter 81-235, Laws of Florida.
History.--ss. 1, 3, ch. 81-235; ss. 1, 3, ch. 83-265; ss. 2, 18, 19, ch. 87-252; s. 36, ch. 88-392; ss. 2, 12, 13, ch. 89-70; s. 10, ch. 90-192; s. 4, ch. 91-429; s. 190, ch. 94-218; s. 3, ch. 95-279; s. 2, ch. 97-198; s. 194, ch. 97-264.