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Privacy and Confidentiality in the Therapeutic Relationship


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Peer-Reviewed Journal Article References:
Allen, L. R., & Dodd, C. G. (2018). Psychologists’ responsibility to society: Public policy and the ethics of political action. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 38(1), 42–53.

Barnett, J. E., & Kolmes, K. (2016). The practice of tele-mental health: Ethical, legal, and clinical issues for practitioners. Practice Innovations, 1(1), 53–66.
Barnett, J. E. (2019). The ethical practice of psychotherapy: Clearly within our reach. Psychotherapy, 56(4), 431–440.

Bellamy, N. D., Wang, M. Q., McGee, L. A., Liu, J. S., & Robinson, M. E. (2019). Crisis-counselor perceptions of job training, stress, and satisfaction during disaster recovery. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 11(1), 19–27

Bersoff, D. N. (2014). Protecting victims of violent patients while protecting confidentiality. American Psychologist, 69(5), 461–467.

Borelli, J. L., Sohn, L., Wang, B. A., Hong, K., DeCoste, C., & Suchman, N. E. (2019). Therapist–client language matching: Initial promise as a measure of therapist–client relationship quality. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 36(1), 9–18.

Chui, H., Palma, B., Jackson, J. L., & Hill, C. E. (2020). Therapist–client agreement on helpful and wished-for experiences in psychotherapy: Associations with outcome. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 67(3), 349–360. 

Committee on Legal Issues, American Psychological Association. (2016). Strategies for private practitioners coping with subpoenas or compelled testimony for client/patient records or test data or test materials. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 47(1), 1–11.

Conlin, W. E., & Boness, C. L. (2019). Ethical considerations for addressing distorted beliefs in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 56(4), 449–458.

Conrad, M. (2019). Moving upstream in the post-Hoffman era: When ethical responsibilities conflict with the law. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 50(6), 407–418.

Franeta, D. (2019). Taking ethics seriously: Toward comprehensive education in ethics and human rights for psychologists. European Psychologist, 24(2), 125–135.

Glosoff, H. L., Herlihy, S. B., Herlihy, B., & Spence, E. B. (1997). Privileged communication in the psychologist–client relationship. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28(6), 573–581.

Haberstroh, J., Gather, J., & Trachsel, M. (2018). Informed consent, capacity assessment, and advance planning in treatment and research [Editorial]. GeroPsych: The Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry, 31(2), 55–56.

Hamblen, J. L., Norris, F. H., Symon, K. A., & Bow, T. E. (2017). Cognitive behavioral therapy for postdisaster distress: A promising transdiagnostic approach to treating disaster survivors. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 9(Suppl 1), 130–136.

Harris, S. E., & Robinson Kurpius, S. E. (2014). Social networking and professional ethics: Client searches, informed consent, and disclosure. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 45(1), 11–19.

Hill, C. E., Knox, S., & Pinto-Coelho, K. G. (2018). Therapist self-disclosure and immediacy: A qualitative meta-analysis. Psychotherapy, 55(4), 445–460.

Hill, C. E., Lu, Y., Gerstenblith, J. A., Kline, K. V., Wang, R. J., & Zhu, X. (2020). Facilitating client collaboration and insight through interpretations and probes for insight in psychodynamic psychotherapy: A case study of one client with three successive therapists. Psychotherapy, 57(2), 263–272.

Jordan, B., Perryman, K., & Anderson, L. (2013). A case for child-centered play therapy with natural disaster and catastrophic event survivors. International Journal of Play Therapy, 22(4), 219–230.

Kazan, S. (1981). Psychotherapy and the law: The duty to warn. American Psychologist, 36(8), 914.

Moss, L. S. (2017). Collaboration, confidentiality, and care. Psychological Services, 14(4), 443–450.

Nielsen, B. A. (2015). Confidentiality and electronic health records: Keeping up with advances in technology and expectations for access. Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology, 3(2), 175–178.

Pinner, D. H., & Kivlighan, D. M. III. (2018). The ethical implications and utility of routine outcome monitoring in determining boundaries of competence in practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 49(4), 247–254.

Pawlow, L., Pomerantz, A., & Sullivan, B. F. (2007). Protecting undergraduate volunteers: Balancing confidentiality with the duty to protect and/or warn. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 1(2), 147–152.

Pope, K. S. (2015). Record-keeping controversies: Ethical, legal, and clinical challenges. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 56(3), 348–356.

Ware, J. N., & Dillman Taylor, D. (2014). Concerns about confidentiality: The application of ethical decision-making within group play therapy. International Journal of Play Therapy, 23(3), 173–186.

Younggren, J. N., Fisher, M. A., Foote, W. E., & Hjelt, S. E. (2011). A legal and ethical review of patient responsibilities and psychotherapist duties. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 42(2), 160–168.

Additional References:
- Center for Forensic Psychiatry. (1996). New Dir Ment Health Serv, 69(5-14).

- Florida Legislature. (2016-2018). Chapter 456 Health Professions and Occupations: General Provisions. 456.057 Ownership and control of patient records; report or copies of records to be furnished; disclosure of information. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from

- Florida Legislature. (2015-2018). Chapter 456 Health Professions and Occupations: General Provisions. 456.0575 Duty to notify patients. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from

- Florida Legislature. (2015-2018). Chapter 456 Health Professions and Occupations: General Provisions. 456.072 Grounds for discipline; penalties; enforcement. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from

- Florida Legislature. (2015-2018). Chapter 456 Health Professions and Occupations: General Provisions. 456.082 Disclosure of confidential information. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from

- Florida Legislature. (2015-2018). Chapter 456 Health Professions and Occupations: General Provisions. 456.38 Practitioner registry for disasters and emergencies Retrieved December 27, 2018, from

- Florida Legislature. (2015-2018). Chapter 491 Clinical, Counseling, and Psychotherapy Services. 491.0147 Confidentiality and privileged communications. Retrieved February 1, 2019. Retrived from

- Florida Department of State. (n.d.). Chapter 64B4 Sexual Misconduct in the Practice of Marriage and Family Therapy, Clinical Social Work and Mental Health Counseling. Retrieved December 27, 2018, from

- Ozair, F. F., Jamshed, N., Sharma, A., & Aggarwal, P. (2015 apr-jun). Ethical issues in electronic health records: A general overview. Perspectives in Clinical Research, 6(2), 73-76. doi:10.4103/2229-3485.153997

- Peterson, M. R. (1992). At Personal Risk: Boundary Violations in Professional Client Relationships. New York: W.W. Norton.

- Rothstein, M. A. (2014). Tarasoff Duties after Newtown. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 42(1), 104-109.

- The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. (april 2015). Guide to Privacy and Security of Electronic Health Information. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1, 4-21.

- Werth, J., Burke, C., & Bardash, R. (Jul, 2002). Confidentiality in end-of-life and after-death situations. Ethics & Behavior, 12(3).


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